African Journal of Public Administration
AJPAM Special Edition Vol XXIV No. 1. January- June 2016
The delivery of basic services remains a challenge in Africa. The seeming failure of governments to meet citizens’ basic service needs in terms of reach and quality has been attributed to, among other things, the rapid rate and level of urbanisation and resource constraints. However, the 2004 World Development Report (WDR) Making Services Work for Poor People located the problem in governance deficiencies. Presenting both the long and short route accountability, the key question was how to make public services more accountable and responsive to the needs of the poorest in the developing world (DfID 2008).
The WDR’s discussed the “long route of accountability” that principally relies on voting as a political back lash to hold leaders accountable and “the short route”, which relies on increasing the client’s effective influence over service providers. In the context of the three key relationships in the service delivery chain: between the consumer and providers, between the consumer and policymakers, and between policymakers and providers. The overall aim was to provide governments unable to meet the growing demand for services with service delivery options that improve accountability and the quantity and quality of services provided (GDN 2010).
Download AJPAM Special Edition Vol XXIV No. 1. January- June 2016
AJPAM Vol XXIII No. 2. July- December 2014
It is a pleasure to introduce this new issue of our journal. The African Association for Public Administration and Management has a sustained commitment to publishing articles likely to be of interest to its members and indeed to others who wish to read about the varied topics which are to be found in this journal. What is also important is that AJPAM represents a means by which scholars and practitioners in the field are given an opportunity to share their ideas and findings with what is a large, and we hope a growing, readership.
This issue has been edited by a team of four. I would like to thank my two co-editors, Obuya Bagaka and Busieka Mataywa, for their commitment and support. Nancy Chiira of the AAPAM secretariat assisted greatly. She made an invaluable contribution. Thanks very much Nancy.
Two stand out features of this issue may be mentioned. The first is that we have a balance between articles which look at Africa in broad terms whilst others focus on specific aspects of the experience of particular countries – Ghana, Kenya and Lesotho. The second feature is of particular importance. Some of our authors come from academic backgrounds but several of them are perhaps best termed practitioners. From AAPAM’s perspective this indicates a healthy state of affairs in which an appropriate combinations of the two ‘sides’ has been achieved.
We have included a review article in which Ngcaweni and Lentsoane discuss a recent book which is both controversial and influential. Morten Jeven, the author of the book in question, has obtained a degree of notoriety for his questioning of the value of the statistics generated by African governments. The two reviewers, whilst conceding the value of some of Jerven’s observations, take the view that the overall merit of the book is limited because, in their view, it portrays African governments unfairly. The review article not only critiques the book but also raises a number of relevant and pressing issues about statistics and public policy in Africa.
Ngcaweni has a second article in this issue which is linked to the review article by virtue of its Africa wide focus. He appraises the 50 years record of the Organisation of African Unity. His account covers such continental initiatives as the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM). Particular attention is given to Eastern and Southern Africa, the roles played by Kenya and South Africa being highlighted. The author arrives at a conclusion which is one of cautious optimism about Africa’s future.
Newman takes as his topic the financing of higher education in Ghana. This issue is one that is not confined to Ghana as it is now of great concern in a number of countries, Drawing on conceptual and theoretical insights as well as data from elsewhere, and particularly the United States of America, he reviews recent policy changes which have affected the allocation of finance for higher education in Ghana. He makes several recommendations based on a detailed analysis of the data he has obtained.
Kapa’s contribution to this issue is based on field research carried out in Lesotho. It is a study of four community councils which came into existence in recent years following the implementation of policy changes and legislation. Various problems are identified and analyzed. These include the position of chiefs within the new system of local government and the inadequate funding arrangements which make it difficult to achieve significant improvements in service delivery. He notes that little change in this picture has occurred since the parliamentary elections of 2012.
Lokuruka and Birgen review some of the lessons which they see emerging from Kenya’s experience of public service. The article contains an historical perspective going back to colonialism, a review of changes under different presidencies post independence and an analysis of the current situation facing the public service in the country. Data is provided about development in Kenya in general whilst highlighting various state initiatives such as skills development, improving access to health and education, improved productivity and major infrastructural projects.
Finally, Njiru, Namusonge and Kobia draw our attention to the relatively unfamiliar concept of ‘intraprenurship’, applying it to the analysis of state corporations in Kenya, the performance of which has been a serious concern for some time. A number of issues are considered such as training and development; an enabling work environment; individual motivation; and individual competence. Links between intrapreneurialism and ‘Vision 2030', which spells out a long term vision for the country, are drawn.
I hope that you will find this issue stimulating and well worth reading. Please note that we aim to build the journal to a point where it can be published more frequently. For that reason, we need more articles submitted for publication and encourage you to do some writing so that your contributions can be considered for inclusion in future issues.
Malcolm Wallis, Interim Editor.
Regent Business School, Durban and the Durban University of Technology.
Download AJPAM Vol XXIII No. 2. July- December 2014
AJPAM Vol XXIII No. 1. July- December 2013
All over the world, public procurement is viewed as one of the government activities in which lack of transparency and accountability are a major threat to integrity in the entire process. the amount of money spent on public sector procurement annually justifies the need for scrutiny at every stage of the procurement process. This journal theme is drawn from this activity that is sad to be most vulnerable to corruption: Procurement. This journal encompasses other articles touching on cross-sectional subthemes that encapsulate what good governance entails
As a major interface between the public and the private sectors, public procurement provides multiple opportunities for both public and private actors to divert public funds for private gain. Public procurement is also a major economic activity of the government where corruption has a potentially high impact on tax payers’ money.
Since corruption thrives on secrecy, transparency and accountability have been recognized as key conditions for promoting integrity and preventing corruption in public procurement. However, they must be balanced with other good governance imperatives, such as ensuring an efficient management of public resources- administrative efficiency- or providing guarantees for fair competition
In order to ensure overall value for money, the challenge for decision makers is to define an appropriate degree of transparency and accountability to reduce risks to integrity in public procurement while pursuing other aims of public procurement.
The lead article in this journal is dome by Montanus Lilanzi, a Senior Lecturer in Management studies, School of Public Administration and Management (SOPAM) at Mzumbe Unversity in Tanzania. His article titles public procurement: Both the product and the process matters presents the list of disciplinary mechanisms and structures of public administration in the provision of procurement function in Tanzania.
Milanzi outlines the architecture that procuring and disposing entities are to become in accordance with the requirements, principles and prohibitions outlined in Tanzania’s Public Procurement Act, 2011
Mr. Simon-Oke Olayemi from the Federal University of Technology, Akure Ondo State wrote a paper about Capital formation and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Oleyemi, who comes from the Department of Project Management technology, focused his study on investigating the relationship between foreign private investment capital formation and poverty reduction in Nigeria, using co-integration and error correction mechanism (ECM) and granger casualty tests with annual time series data covering the period between 1978 and 2008.
Dr. E.B.A Agbaje, who lectures at the Department of Political Sciences, College of Management and Social Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria wrote a paper titled Budgeting and development miscarriage in Nigeria. In the paper he argues that good governance, budgetary planning and strict fiscal regulation remains the bedrock of development. He expresses concern that although Nigeria is not lacking in planning and regulatory statues; despite great potential, till now, development has turned a false hope.
Dr. Muyiwa Sanda from the Department of Business Administration and Marketing, School of Management and Social Studies, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State co-authored a paper with Olawumi Dele Awolusi from the same department on the Effects of motivation on worker’s job commitment. In their paper, the due examines the perceived effects of management use of motivation on workers’ job commitment in tertiary institutions in south-western Nigeria. Their empirical study was conducted via the administration of 2,680 questionnaires on teaching and non-teaching staff of selected institutions.
From the National University of Lesotho’s Department of Development Studies, Moses M. M. Daemane (Dr.) authored a paper on the Demise of co-op movement in Lesotho and its failure to transform the poor peasantry. The paper provides an analysis of how the agricultural marketing instruments that the Government of Lesotho applied influenced the market conduct, market systemic organization and market performance in national food self-sufficiency, food security and poverty reduction.
Abdulhamid Ozohu-Suleiman, PhD. And Jeremiah Tersur vambe from the University of Abuja’s Department of Public Administration wrote a paper on Promoting youth employment through open apprentiship.
The duo argues that youth unemployment has remained one of the present and steady social problems that characterize Nigeria as a developing economy. Measures to address this social problem have featured prominently in the development agenda of successive governments. However the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) established by the Babangida Administration in 1986, comes across as a consistent public policy on employment and wealth creation that has managed to endure over the years.
Professor Kayemuddin from the Islamic University of Technology (IUT), Dhaka in Bangladesh wrote a paper titled Work environment determines productivity. This paper evaluates the factors conducive to productivity improvement of small industries in Bangladesh.
Thokozani Ian Nzimakwe wrote a paper Adopting innovation to enhance service delivery. Nzimakwe argues that the rapidly changing world environment makes it essential for institutions to pay more attention to the dynamic and ever-changing environment is to be an innovative public manager.
Finally, a paper co-authored by Masud Sarker, AGM Niaz Uddin and Bayezid Alam all from Shahjalal University of Science and Technology in Bangladesh titled Only a fully independent electoral body can mount free and fair elections, the paper is an analytical study based on the secondary sources examines the nature of the by-election in the Bhola-3 constituency. It demonstrates that ruling parties’ attitude of ‘win at all cost’ predisposes them towards animosity that often clouds the election results.
Prof. Margaret Kobia, Ph.D., CBS
Chairperson, Public Service Commission
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AJPAM Vol. XXII No. 2 January 2013
This journal has one theme: Decentralization. However, it has also touched on cross-cutting issues that are relevant to Public Administration. Someone might be wondering why decentralization. The world over, both government and private sector organizations are becoming more popular as the ability for them to decentralize increases. Decentralization, it has been discovered, allows organizations and governments to take advantage of division of labour by sharing decision- making across different levels of government. It also empowers citizens or employees besides allowing them to improve their performance by being able to act to improve deficient or inefficient areas immediately without micromanagement from the top of the entire system. A total of ten articles have been published with three of them focusing on decentralization.
Prof. Margaret Kobia and Mr. Samwel Kumba from the Kenya School of Government, in their article on decentralization, examine how to strengthen citizen engagement through decentralization in order to enhance public service delivery. The paper reviews literature on decentralization, good governance and poverty reduction with specific reference to Kenya’s case regarding decentralization effort. It identifies human resource capacity development, in the Kenyan context, required for implementing the devolved government as envisioned in Kenya’s new Constitution, 2010 which places decentralization at the centre.
Dr. Mataywa’s, “The African Peer Review Mechanism: A veritable tool for citizen engagement to improve accountability in decentralized systems,” is the other article with a message that central to decentralization and the whole concept of citizen engagement is the quest to actualize good governance. The paper commences by highlighting some of the peer review key characteristics and themes besides identifying and locating decentralization within the theme of democracy and good governance, this being one of the peer review key indicators.
The paper further explains the centrality of participation, inclusivity and consultation as core concepts in the review process and how this impacts on the integrity of Country Assessment Reports. Finally, the paper takes the view that APRM, being a people centred and driven process, is specially tooled to bring pressure to bear on countries to empower citizen to play a meaningful role in decision-making in decentralized regions.
Dr. Obuya Bagaka’s “Fiscal decentralization in Kenya through the Constituency Development Fund and allocative efficiency,” is the other paper that focuses on decentralization and presents the argument that fiscal decentralization promotes allocative efficiency. Dr Bagaka, from the Kenya School of Government, opines that Constituency Development Fund improves local priority development. The paper examines the extent to which Kenya’s fiscal decentralization program –CDF - improves allocative efficiency as postulated by both the decentralization and fiscal federalism literature. The conclusion of the paper suggests that further research is needed to ascertain claims by the program’s critics that local expenditure decisions are politically- motivated.
The rest of the papers in the journal touch on cross-cutting issues. For instance, Dr J.A. Adegboyega and Mr A.O. Awosusi, M., delves into matters of physical health where in their delightful article, “Physical Activity and Exercise: An indispensable factor for achieving optimum health in the
21st Century,” they encourage everybody that cares to live healthy to engage in physical activity and exercise. The paper investigated the role of physical activity and exercise as an indispensable factor in achieving optimum health in the 21st century. From the findings, the paper recommends that enlightenment and sensitization programmes be carried out to educate the populace on the importance of physical exercise. Besides, the government should provide and adequately equip recreation centres to make it conducive for the citizens to participate.
Peter P. Khaola and Khotsofalang Letsika’s, “Pay or job satisfaction: Explaining turnover intent of nurses in Lesotho,” examine factors that influence turnover intentions of nurses in Lesotho, specifically exploring whether it is pay satisfaction or job satisfaction that has a greater impact on nurses’ turnover. The paper established that job satisfaction correlated negatively and significantly with turnover intentions of nurses, but contrary to expectations of many, pay satisfaction did not produce a significant negative relationship with turnover intentions of nurses. These results are explained within the context of pressing health sector problems in Lesotho, and practical implications are outlined.
B. Noor, J. S. Rahman, M.D. Rubbaiyat Siamon and Ummai Salma, in their paper, “The interaction effects of the factors influencing knowledge and consciousness of the infectious diseases: Bangladesh Population,” sought to establish whether increased availability of information, for example, through television sets, increases people’s conscious levels on infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis B. This was found to be the case.
Dr.KG Phago’s, “The evolving Public Administration scholarship in South Africa,” highlights two key issues paramount in ensuring that Public Administration scholarship activities in South Africa evolve to resonate with pertinent Continental research agenda. It also discusses the need to bridge the existing gap between scholarship and practice which requires interventions of an intransigent meritorious system in the Public Service. Phago further argues that South African Association of Public Administration and Management (SAAPAM) has perpetuated an apartheid research agenda in contrast to that of AAPAM, therefore, advancing the need for the scholarship. This meritocracy, it is concluded, is where the appointment of public officials is embedded in the recognition of academic qualifications especially for senior positions.
Prof. Francis K. Makoa and Dr. Elsie T. Makoa, in their article, “Lesotho’s access to land and immovable property by all policy: prospects for women’s access to land and immovable property under the Lesotho Land Act,” explores the challenges that need to be overcome if the policy is to benefit women as intended. It focuses on women and property inheritance in Lesotho. Aptly deserving the label “the access to land and immovable property by all policy” this paper presents the policy as a radical departure from the previous land policy which discriminated against women.
Prof. Md. Kayemuddin, writing on, “Poverty alleviation through micro-credit,” argues that credit plays an important role in improving the standard of living of the very poor in society. The paper identifies many constraints to fighting poverty. If the micro-credit can be used by all of the nations of the world efficiently and effectively, then there may be alleviation of poverty of the poor people of the world, the paper asserts.
Dr. Emma Chukwuemeka, in her article, “Men muddle through messy Nigerian politics which women have shunned altogether,” examines the extent to which women in Nigeria participate in politics, focusing on Abia and Imo states. The paper recommends that political mobilization should be carried out into villages in Nigeria to sensitize women on the need to get involved in politics. In addition, new laws should be enacted on political violence. These should be pursued so as to curb the high level violence meted out to women especially by their male political counterparts in Nigeria.
In the overall, this journal is holistic in the sense that it covers all aspects that a typical public servant encounters each day. It is through understanding how these issues can be resolved that we can finally achieve an efficient and first class 21st century public service that we all envision. With determination, the motto remains yes we can and indeed, we will.
Prof. Margaret Kobia, Ph.D, CBS
Director and Associate Professor of Management
Download AJPAM Vol. XXII No. 2 January 2013