Vol. XXIV No. 1. January - June 2016
 Chief Editor Prof. Malcolm Wallis, Associate Editors Dr. Obuya Bagaka and Dr. Mataywa Busieka
 Published by The African Association for Public Administration and Management (AAPAM)
 Includes Bibliographical References
 ISSN: 2222-646X

 UN Avenue, Magnolia Close, 132 Fuchsia Close Gigiri
 P. O. Box 48677, 100
 Nairobi, Kenya
 Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. / This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 Tel: +254 20 2629650/ +254712366787/ +254 773552076

 Copyright ©AAPAM 2017 The African Association for Public Administration and Management (AAPAM)


 

CONTENTS

Introduction: Varieties of Governance and Effective Public Service Delivery:
A Study of Six Countries in Africa
Nansozi K. Muwanga

The Relationship between Collective Drinking Water Provision Facilities’
Operation Model and Water Sector Delivery Outcomes in Burkina Faso
Siri Alain Kaboré, Tambi Samuel and Somé Seglaro Abel

Governance and Public Service Delivery: The Case of Water Supply and Roads
Services Delivery in Addis Ababa and Hawassa Cities, Ethiopia
Woldeab Teshome, Degefa Tolossa, Fenta Mandefro and Bamlaku Alamirew

Accountability and Performance of Government Agencies in the Delivery of
Water, Education and Road Services in Nigeria
Aderibigbe S. Olomola, Anthonia T. Simbine, Audu Wadinga and Ademola Adeagbo

Governance and Water Service Delivery in Senegal
Ameth S. Ndiaye and Sènakpon Fidèle A. Dedehouanou

Governance, Accountability and Effective Basic Service Delivery in Sierra Leone
Sullay S. Kamara and Diana Ofori-Owusu

Non-responsiveness of Local Governments to Demands of Service Users:
Implications for Accountability in Uganda
George Bogere

 

INTRODUCTION TO A SIX COUNTRY STUDY ON VARIETIES OF
GOVERNANCE AND EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY IN AFRICA
Nansozi K. Muwanga 1

Introduction

The delivery of basic services remains a challenge in Africa. The seeming failure of governments to meet citizens’ basic service needs in terms of reach and quality has been attributed to, among other things, the rapid rate and level of urbanisation and resource constraints. However, the 2004 World Development Report (WDR) Making Services Work for Poor People located the problem in governance deficiencies. Presenting both the long and short route accountability, the key question was how to make public services more accountable and responsive to the needs of the poorest in the developing world (DFID 2008). The WDR’s discussed the “long route of accountability” that principally relies on voting as a political back lash to hold leaders accountable and “the short route”, which relies on increasing the client’s effective influence over service providers. In the context of the three key relationships in the service delivery chain: between the consumer and providers, between the consumer and policymakers, and between policymakers and providers. The overall aim was to provide governments unable to meet the growing demand for services with service delivery options that improve accountability and the quantity and quality of services provided (GDN 2010).

 

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COLLECTIVE DRINKING WATER
PROVISION FACILITIES’ OPERATION MODEL AND WATER SECTOR
DELIVERY OUTCOMES IN BURKINA FASO
Siri Alain1KaboréTambi Samuel2, Somé Seglaro Abel3

Abstract

The 2000 rural and peri-urban drinking water service management reforms in Burkina Faso paved the way for the adoption of quasi-market management methods in drinking water service delivery. Unlike community based drinking water service management methods, water service management models resulting from the reform emphasize the use of contracts to govern relations between actors. The new water service management models exist within a decentralisation framework. The paper assesses the outcome effects of the adoption of New Public Management model in Burkina Faso drinking water sector. It uses a representative sample of 62 municipalities out of 351 to estimate and compares the impact of different water service management methods on water delivery outcomes. The econometric comparative approach matches groups of municipalities using market-based management methods with similar municipalities using community based management approaches. The study findings indicate that contract-based management methods promoted by the reform, improve water service equipment operating rate and substantially reduce waiting time at water points. The paper recommends increasing support of municipalities in the implementation of diverse New Management methods in water service delivery.


Key Words: Water sector performance, Water reforms, Public service agents, Public- private partnerships

 

GOVERNANCE AND PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY: THE CASE OF WATER
SUPPLY AND ROADS SERVICES DELIVERY IN ADDIS ABABA AND
HAWASSA CITIES, ETHIOPIA1
Woldeab Teshome, Degefa Tolossa, Fenta Mandefro and Bamlaku Alamirew2

Abstract

This study explores the governance of water and road service delivery in Addis Ababa and Hawassa in Ethiopia focusing on the organization, capacity, accountability mechanisms, and transparency of service delivery agencies. The research adopted a multiple case study approach and mixed data collection methods including survey, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), and key informant interviews. The study showed that despite extensive public sector reforms, the supply and distribution remains under the monopoly of public agencies. A significant gap in demand and supply of services was observed in both cities in terms of access, availability and quality of services.


Key Words: Water supply, Transparency, Institutional reform, Citizen Participation, Accountability, Road service delivery

 

ACCOUNTABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
IN THE DELIVERY OF WATER, EDUCATION AND ROAD SERVICES IN
NIGERIA
Aderibigbe S. Olomola1, Anthonia T. Simbine2, Audu Wadinga3 and Ademola Adeagbo4

Abstract

This study examines the effects of governance on public service delivery in the education, water and road sectors in Nigeria focusing on accountability and participation. The study shows that a decentralized governance system provides better results. Specifically, it results in positive changes in availability, access, affordability and quality of water. Information must flow freely and beneficiaries must be aware of their responsibilities. The road sector where such a framework is lacking witnessed poor service delivery, the study concludes that accountability and participation are necessary conditions for improving delivery of public services. However, they need to be fostered parri passu with effective budget process and timely release of funds in order to have any significant improvement in public service delivery. Besides, the citizens have to be empowered economically to enable them hold providers of public services accountable.


Key Words: Accountability, Citizen Participation, Decentralization, Inter-governmental Partnerships,

 

GOVERNANCE AND WATER SERVICE DELIVERY IN SENEGAL
Ameth S. Ndiaye1, Sènakpon Fidèle A. Dedehouanou2

Abstract

In 1995, the Government of Senegal launched far-reaching reforms in the water sector. However, there is still limited enthusiasm among urban and rural populations about the delivery of this service. We argue in this paper that accountability mechanisms matter in the delivery process. We examine qualitatively the effectiveness of three aspects of governance: participation, accountability and transparency. We then analyse the relationship between governance variables and some objective variables of water outcomes. We find that while systems of information and transparency are somewhat effective through meetings between councillors and water providers in both rural and urban areas, accountability mechanisms are likely to be more effective in rural communities. Contrary to the case of urban water in municipalities, governance variables do not have a significant effect on water outcomes in rural communities. Based on our findings we outline a number of policy implications.


Key Words: Water Service Delivery, Accountability, Citizen Participation, Decentralization, Public Private Partnership

 

GOVERNANCE, ACCOUNTABILITY AND EFFECTIVE BASIC SERVICE
DELIVERY IN SIERRA LEONE
Sullay S. Kamara and Diana Ofori-Owusu1

Abstract

The critical empirical question raised in this study is the governance of primary education, water supply and feeder roads in Sierra Leone. Of particular concern is the latitude with which services are delivered by providers and whether they operate autonomously or are steered by accountability mechanisms. The study used both primary and secondary sources of data. The analysis reveals that the delivery of these basic services is changing from government to a variety of other actors, where the private sector and NGO/communities are gaining governance space. The public sector has however shown willingness to share power with local governments and to cooperate with the private sector (profit and not-for-profit) and communities. It is expected that if this power sharing and collaboration is sustained it might improve collective efficiency and effectiveness.


Key Words: Water Governance, Transport Infrastructure, Devolution, Accountability, Citizen Participation

 

NON-RESPONSIVENESS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTS TO DEMANDS OF
SERVICE USERS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACCOUNTABILITY IN UGANDA
George Bogere1

Abstract

Non-responsiveness to the demands of service users is weakening local government accountability for service provision in Uganda. This study uses findings on water provision and road works in five local governments in Uganda to examine the impact of variations in the capacity of local governments based on their responsiveness to the demands of service users. The results show that capacity to act and incentives impact on the responsiveness of local governments and service providers. Furthermore, service users have lost confidence in the efficacy of reporting service delivery issues. The study recommends a mechanism to handle user complaints and strengthening local councils’ oversight function.


Key Words: Water, Roads, Accountability, Decentralization, Governance, Non- Responsiveness

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 AJPAM Vol. XXV No. 1. July - December 2017
 Chief Editor Prof. Malcolm Wallis, Associate Editors Dr. Obuya Bagaka and Dr. Mataywa Busieka
 Published by The African Association for Public Administration and Management (AAPAM)
 Includes Bibliographical References
 ISSN: 2222-646X

 UN Avenue, Magnolia Close, 132 Fuchsia Close Gigiri
 P. O. Box 48677, 100
 Nairobi, Kenya
 Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. / This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 Tel: +254 20 2629650/ +254712366787/ +254 773552076

 Copyright ©AAPAM 2017 The African Association for Public Administration and Management (AAPAM)



 

 CONTENTS

The Nigerian Federalism and Sustainable Model for Inter-Governmental Relations Lessons from the Ebola Virus Epidemic
Mike Opeyemi Omilusi
Impact of Government Policy on Sustainable Tourism Development in Zambia
Syed Ali
New Public Management: Is it Relevant in Nigeria?
Chioma Nwamaka Momah
Rethinking the Place of Bureaucracy in Public Sector Management in Africa in the 21 st Century: The Nigerian Experience
Augustine Nduka Eneanya
Economic Integration: The Impact of Conflict on Economic Development of Africa
Julie Muia Mutunga
Real World Evaluations in Nigeria that made a difference
Bala Ibrahim Sambo

 

 THE NIGERIAN FEDERALISM AND SUSTAINABLE MODEL FOR
INTER-GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS: LESSONS FROM THE
EBOLA VIRUS EPIDEMIC
By
Mike Opeyemi Omilusi and JM Oluwaleye

Abstract
The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease had a devastating effect on communities in West Africa, exposing the vulnerabilities of their services and systems. Its impact affected every part of society, impeding the delivery of basic services, such as health and education, crippling the economy, and jeopardizing social cohesion. In this paper, we examine the nature and character of inter-governmental relations in Nigeria essentially in relation to a particular incident- The Ebola virus epidemic- that ravaged some West African countries in 2014 with particular focus on Nigeria. Though many renowned world’s virologists described the outbreak of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Nigeria as a test of the country’s weak health system but the applause given by the international community at the declaration of Ebola free status attests to how collaborative federalism on public health emergency/policies could enhance the synergy between the Nigerian Federal Government and other tiers of government as manifested in the affected states namely;Lagos and Rivers. This study contends that the type of synergy observable among the tiers of government during the period, in spite of differences in political parties (This has always hindered developmental efforts among the federating units in Nigeria) is collaborative federalism. This concept, as a distinct type of federalism that is built upon a particular culture of intergovernmental relations, is different from that known in the two legally driven types: dual and cooperative federalism.

Key Words:Federalism, Ebola Virus, Sustainable Model, Inter-Governmental Relation


 

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT POLICY ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
DEVELOPMENT IN ZAMBIA
BY
Syed Ali

Abstract
The objective of this study was to research on the impact of Government Policy on sustainable tourism development in Zambia. The study used secondary data from UNWTO, Ministry of Tourism and Arts and Ministry of Finance and National Planning Government of Zambia. The impact of Government Policy on sustainable tourism development was measured by five indicators, i.e., international tourist arrivals; bed spaces, room occupancy rate, employment levels and annual direct earnings. The study revealed that there was positive impact of Government policy on tourism development with respect to all these five indicators. The study recommended for increasing the percentage of Foreign Aid and ODA for the development of tourism, to place tourism in higher position in national policies, co-ordination of policies and inter-sectoral linkages at all levels, i.e., international, national, regional and local, and encouragement of rural/village tourism.

Key Words : Sustainable tourism development; International tourist arrivals; Bed spaces; Room occupancy rate; Employment levels; Direct earnings from tourism activities


 

NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT: IS IT RELEVANT IN NIGERIA?
BY
Chioma Nwamaka Momah

Abstract
This paper delves into whether New Public Management (NPM) as a theory in Public Administration is still relevant in Public Administration generally and in Nigeria particularly. It employs the use of qualitative data from study’s conducted on this topic. It explores the practical application of NPM in Nigeria and how successful it has been in achieving its goals and reforming the Public Sector. The paper commences with an introduction of what NPM is and whether it is still relevant today or not. It then focuses on the Nigerian experience with NPM, highlighting the privatisation of Nigeria Airways and other agencies. The overall conclusion of this paper concludes that NPM is indeed a relevant theory when it is properly applied and adapted to suit the Nation to which it is being applied. It therefor does not belong in the archives of public administration. It recommends that more NPM styles policies will ensure Nigeria’s public sector will be fully reformed and will thrive.

Key Words : New Public Management, Privatisation, Public Sector, Reform, Corruption, Developing Nations


 

RETHINKING THE PLACE OF BUREAUCRACY IN PUBLIC
SECTOR MANAGEMENT IN AFRICA IN THE 21
ST
CENTURY: THE
NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE
BY
Augustine Nduka Eneanya

Abstract
Bureaucracy today faces different challenges of a single defining concept that is either a buzzword, or a curse or nothing more than an ill-defined idea driving today’s debates on public management. This paper sets out to examine the concept and place of bureaucracy in public sector management in the 21 st Century in Nigeria in the face of technological innovations and globalization. Using qualitative research technique, data were collected from secondary sources, such as textbooks, journal articles, library materials, magazines and internet. Content analysis method was adopted to elicit key concepts or themes, which were coded and categorized. Secondary analysis and interpretive methods were utilized in data analysis. Findings show that bureaucracy, though, has its strengths in public service management in African countries, especially in Nigeria, there is need for a rethink of its replacement or alternatives in view of technological changes and globalization. The article, therefore, concludes by suggesting different alternatives to bureaucracy that have emerged in both private and public sectors as a result of changes in the nature of work and technology. These alternatives have been tested in literature and can replace bureaucracy in public sector management in African countries in the 21 st Century.

Key Words: Bureaucracy, New Public Management, New Public Governance, New Public Service, and Globalization


 

ECONOMIC INTEGRATION: THE IMPACT OF CONFLICT ON
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICA
BY
Julie Muia Mutunga

Abstract
This article explores the role played by Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in fostering political and socio-economic development and how conflict affects this aspiration. The article argues that despite having a platform for collective bargaining, increased markets and product diversification, African RECs performed poorly in comparison to international counterparts. While conflict was believed to play a major role in the dismal performance displayed by RECs, this assertion is challenged by findings which have revealed steady growth in areas such as Foreign Direct investment and Trade in countries plagued by conflict. Using qualitative, analytical and theoretical approaches, the paper reveals that conflict has seemingly re- distributed economic gains in RECs and also opened new markets for member states with similar goods and services, thereby cushioning RECs from adverse economic effects of conflict. To ensure sustainable development, the article recommends strengthening RECs by instituting structures that focus on collective bargaining and good governance. This will ultimately drive the continent’s economic development agenda.

Key Words: Economic Integration, Regional Economic Communities, Foreign Direct Investments, Resource Flows, Human capital, Trade, Inter-state Conflict, Intra-state Conflict


 

REAL WORLD EVALUATIONS IN NIGERIA THAT MADE A
DIFFERENCE
BY
Bala Ibrahim Sambo

Abstract
This is a descriptive study. The study was an attempt to evaluate the capacity building initiative by the Office of the Head of the Civil Service of the Federal Republic of Nigeria from 2009 to 2011. The study evaluated the impact of three intervention programmes by the Federal Government of Nigeria with a view to finding out what difference the intervention programmes had on the productivity of the Nigerian Civil Service. A research instrument was used to obtain data. Participants of the three intervention programmes served as respondents of the research instrument used in conducting the research. The research used descriptive statistics in analysing the data (frequency count and percentage). However, an inferential statistics (X 2) was used to ascertain the significance of some findings. The study found out that the evaluation of the 2009 intervention led to the introduction of e-Learning as a means of training the Civil Service. It was also found out that the training the Civil Servants received on attitudinal change had a significant positive impact on the Civil Service.

Key Words: African Peer Review Mechanism, capacity building, evaluation, intervention programmes, e-Learning, assessment, competency-based promotion
.

 

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 Vol. XXIV No. 2. July - December 2016
 Chief Editor Prof. Malcolm Wallis, Associate Editors Dr. Obuya Bagaka and Dr. Mataywa Busieka
 Published by The African Association for Public Administration and Management (AAPAM)
 Includes Bibliographical References
 ISSN: 2222-646X

 UN Avenue, Magnolia Close, 132 Fuchsia Close Gigiri
 P. O. Box 48677, 100
 Nairobi, Kenya
 Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. / This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 Tel: +254 20 2629650/ +254712366787/ +254 773552076

 Copyright ©AAPAM 2017 The African Association for Public Administration and Management (AAPAM)



 

CONTENTS

Promoting Sustainable Development in Africa: The Role of Civil Society and the Importance of Access to Information Regime
A. Arko-Cobbah and Basie Olivier
Decentralization and Local Economic Development in Uganda
Yasin Olum
Enhancing Service Delivery in Namibia through Public Sector Reform over the Last 25 Years: A Case Study of Namibia
Charles Keyter
Harnessing Resource Capacity to Finance Growth and Development in Africa: The Kenyan Experience between 2003 -2012
Patrick Mumo Muinde and Nura Mohamed
Reviewing and Re-Visioning Vocational Training Policy in a Fragile and Conflict-Affected State: The Case for Mobile Training in South Sudan
Nick Waterman
Leading Reform and Organisational Change: The Botswana Public Service Experience
Bashi Mothusi, Mogopodi H. Lekorwe and Maubrey Pitso


 

Promoting Sustainable Development in Africa: The Role of Civil
Society and the Importance of Access to Information Regime
By
A. Arko-Cobbah1 and Basie Olivier2

Abstract
The quest for sustainable development in Africa has been a tortuous one due to factors such as political instability, civil and interstate wars, strangulating foreign debts, totalitarian and corrupt regimes and poor governance. The proliferation of civil society organisations (CSOs) around the continent and other parts of the world has occurred due to the successive waves of democratisation following the collapse of communism. This, coupled with global support and pressure, is gradually having an impact on Africa’s developmental efforts. Democratic governance with its insistence on transparency, accountability and the rule of law has aroused the interest of CSOs to press for participation in governance. Consequently, this has led to a greater interest in access to information (ATI) legislation and various African governments are under pressure to respond accordingly. Socio-economic rights are being demanded by the marginalised under the banner of civil society, with support from the international community.

Key Words: Sustainable Development, Policy Choice, CSO, Democratic Governance, Preference revelation, Community Participation, Access to Information (AIT)


 

DECENTRALIZATION AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
IN UGANDA
By
Yasin Olum1 (PhD)

Abstract
Uganda has been implementing the decentralization policy of the devolution type since 1992. One of the main objectives of decentralization is increasing incomes and expanding local revenues at the local levels. In order to achieve this particular objective, the Government of Uganda focused mainly on service delivery and not on local economic development (LED) which is crucial in enhancing service delivery. This article argues that in spite of the achievements so far registered in the implementation of LED, it is constrained by several challenges. These challenges are now adversely affecting the successful implementation of the decentralization policy itself. To address this issue, the paper is divided into four sections: explaining the meaning and objectives of LED; strategies of implementing LED including initiatives that cover Public-Private-Partnerships (PPPs), women, and the youth; challenges of implementing LED; and conclusion.

Key Words: Local Economic Development, Decentralization, PPPs, Community Building, Economic governance, Enterprise Development, Youth and Women participation


 

ENHANCING SERVICE DELIVERY IN NAMIBIA THROUGH PUBLIC
SECTOR REFORM OVER THE LAST 25 YEARS: A CASE STUDY OF
NAMIBIA
By
Charles Keyter1

Abstract
In 2015 Namibia celebrated 25 years of independence; the people of Namibia also witnessed a smooth transition of presidential power in a peaceful, democratic and constitutional manner. The newly elected President H.E. Hage Geingob committed himself and his government to accelerated service delivery. Despite positive developments within Namibia, the country has witnessed an increase in corruption, maladministration and poor service delivery over the last few years. This article will briefly focus on service delivery within Namibia, as well as the positive and negative developments regarding service delivery that has taken place over the last 25 years. A brief discussion will follow thereafter focusing on the measures the government of Namibia has taken on an institutional level to address these maladies to ensure accelerated service delivery. The measures put in place are; the principle of ministerial accountability- addressing corruption, ensuring public enterprises operate effectively and efficiently; establishing sound labour relations; enhancing professionalism within the Namibian Public Service and ensuring transparency in service delivery.

Key words: Good governance, NIPAM, Transparency, Performance management, economic progress, Health Sector, Education sector, National Development plans, Vision 2030


 

Harnessing Resource Capacity to Finance Growth and Development
in Africa: The Kenyan Experience between 2003 -20121
Patrick Mumo Muinde2 and Nura Mohamed3

Abstract
This article investigates the reasons behind Kenya’s increased economic activity, resource mobilization strategy and documents her experience that other African states can learn from. The study objectives were to investigate the strategies used by the Kenyan government to mobilize resources to finance economic growth and transformation in the 10year period 2003-2012, document legal and institutional framework that has supported this growth momentum and document her experiences over the period under review. Qualitative data was sought through desk reviews of publications, reforms, performance reports, and studies from key institutions. Interviews were conducted with senior government officials and policy makers who have had key roles in the relevant Ministries. The study concludes that sustained tax policy and administrative reforms, growth in government borrowing from the domestic debt and capital markets, and strengthening of key institutions with the support of the necessary legal framework have been instrumental in mobilizing resources to support growth over the 10 year period. As policy options, the article proposes sustained reforms of tax policies and administration, a focus on domestic debt and capital markets with structured finance instruments to harness within country resource potential and committed leadership at the top of African governments to sustain the transformation agenda.

Keywords: Taxation, Internally Generated Funds, Donor Dependency, Economic Growth, flagship projects, policies


 

REVIEWING AND RE-VISIONING VOCATIONAL TRAINING POLICY IN
A FRAGILE AND CONFLICT-AFFECTED STATE: THE CASE FOR MOBILE
TRAINING IN SOUTH SUDAN
By
Nick Waterman1

ABSTRACT
Vocational training is seen as engendering social stability through equitable access to relevant skills development and gainful employment opportunities, as well as broadly contributing to socio-economic development. This paper reviews vocational training policy in South Sudan as a case study of a fragile and conflict-affected state in Africa, using the 5C model proposed by Brynard which identifies key factors in the policy space. The review concludes that despite the importance of the draft South Sudan Vocational Training policy, there is lack of service delivery to marginalised youth. Given the recent conflict and fragility in South Sudan this article also concludes that whilst the approach to policy formulation and implementation was an aspect of post-conflict resolution, an additional training approach is required to help sustain social stability and obviate further dislocation. This article recommends the implementation of mobile training approaches within a sustainable livelihoods paradigm to engage disaffected youth in particular.

Key Words: Policy analysis; TVET and development; mobile training; fragile and conflict-affected states; South Sudan


 

LEADING REFORM AND ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE: THE BOTSWANA
PUBLIC SERVICE EXPERIENCE
By Bashi Mothusi1, Mogopodi H. Lekorwe2 and Maubrey Pitso3

Abstract

Public services all over the world are faced with challenges of responding to the demands of their citizens. In an attempt to be responsive, they face the imperative of undertaking public sector reforms, which are not only structural, but have to include changing mindsets and even cultural shifts in the behaviour of public servants. Hence, the Botswana government took a deliberate decision to invest time and financial resources in leading public sector reforms. Leadership is critical before, during and after implementing the reforms. Senior managers in government are expected not only to lead, but as employees have to deal with their own reactions to the changes. If one is an ineffective leader, there is a likelihood that one will bear a very heavy personal load which can only lead to failure. The focus of this article is to discuss the manner in which various reforms geared towards enhancing productivity in Botswana were introduced or handled. In setting the parameters of the article, a brief review of the literature on public sector reforms and organisational change will be presented with a view to highlighting factors that usually compel countries to embrace public sector reforms. This will be followed by a discussion of the two change models developed by Kurt Lewin in 1951.


Key words: Public Sector Reforms, Refreezing, Vision 2016, Performance Management, Economic diversification, Human resource, Change, Unfreezing
 

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